Root – structure and characteristics 22

The root is a very important part of autotrophic plants, especially if it can be fenced with a landscape plastic grass limiter (качествен ограничител ландшафтен за трева). The root and root system is located under the soil cover. It plays an important role in attaching the plant to all types of garden soil.

In most cases, the root system is formed by a single central root and multiple branches, on which are located perhaps the most important parts – the root hairs. In addition to attaching to the soil, the root system also serves to provide the plant with the necessary nutrients and water to ensure its development.

The root also accumulates reserve nutrients, which is very important for the survival of the plant in extreme situations. There are also plants that are propagated by root cuttings. It has been established that primary synthesis of some substances takes place in the root, and this proves the important and specific role of the root in the life and development of plants.

In the seed is the germinal root, which gives rise to the primary root system.

After germination, this primary root is directed vertically down into the soil. After some increase, new first-order roots begin to emerge from it, and after some time, second-order roots appear on them, and so on. Thus, the root system is gradually formed. Root hairs are formed on the thinnest extreme roots.

They are very tender and their life is up to a few weeks. Root hairs play a particularly important role, they serve to supply water and nutrients that are very important for plant development. Root hairs do not develop in the presence of mycorrhiza on the roots.

Mycorrhiza in most cases is beneficial for plants. It represents the coexistence of the Korean plants with some species of fungi. These mushrooms replace the root hairs and help the plant to nourish it. In turn, the plant provides the mushrooms with the necessary nutrients and water.

Mycorrhiza is even useful for woody plants. There are tree species that form mycorrhiza on their own, although they grow on poorer soils. In some cases, when afforesting or landscaping in an urban environment, the soils are anthropogenic, which means that they lack these mycorrhizal fungi, and when plants that need them are planted, the soil is intentionally contaminated with these fungi. This is achieved by importing natural soil.

Root tubers can form on the roots of some plants, which contribute to the absorption of atmospheric nitrogen. These tubers are characteristic of plants of the legume family. These plants are used for planting on soils by the mining industry. The shape of the root system depends on many factors (different shapes are shown in the photos taken by Chris Breeze, SFB579 and thejonoakley).

Some of them are the way the central root grows, as well as the lateral branches, as well as the type of soil. According to their way of growth, the root system is of three types: deep, superficial and mixed. Depending on the soil conditions: mechanical composition, water permeability, water holding capacity, humidity, density, aeration and others, some plants with a deep root system form a shallow root system.


These species as well as species with a shallow (surface) root system suffer from wind and snow. When landscaping boulevards and streets in urban environments, the use of plants with a superficial root system is not recommended because they destroy the pavement of sidewalks and streets. Also, the conditions for the plants and more precisely for the root system are unfavorable due to the pavements on the soil. Usually the root system branches more in deciduous plants. The root system has uneven growth. The largest increase is in spring and autumn. During highs, the plant extracts the most nutrients needed for its development.


Knowledge of the root system of individual plants is very important for the conduct of some activities, such as watering, fertilizing, pruning, removal and transfer, watering and others. It is very important to know that when removing and transferring plants, part of their root system is lost and thus the relationship between root and crown is disturbed. Therefore, after planting the plant in the new place, it is good to carry out a crown-shortening pruning so that the roots can feed the plant. To prevent this pruning, the best time to remove the plant is through its rooms, which is before leafing or after the fall. The roots of conifers are very sensitive and therefore they must always be removed and transported with a root ball.

The root ball is a soil fixed around the roots of the plant, hiding them from external atmospheric influences and protecting them. Under favorable conditions, the root system develops less than in adverse conditions. In dry soil, the root tends to reach moisture and thus grows, while in favorable conditions, growth is not necessary, because the roots and the plant have everything. The development of the root system is inhibited by the appearance of weeds and weeds around the plants. Therefore, regular weeding and digging around the plants, especially around the young ones, is recommended.

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