Diseases caused by fungi on plants and Positive and negative actions of roof gardens 114

When maintaining landscaping in the yard and garden, green areas in restaurants, cafes and gardens in hotels and restaurants, garden in front of the office, vegetable corner of tomato seeds in a greenhouse made of polyethylene for greenhouses one of the most important things is to protect plants from different types of diseases and pests. Fungi belong to the group of chlorophyll-free organisms. They are classified into three classes: Fungi, Protozoa and Chromista, with most of the mushrooms belonging to the first class. тротоарни плочки бетонови

About 120,000 species of fungi distributed in different parts of the globe have been described, and according to a study by mycologists, there are about a million more mushrooms waiting to be described.

Mushrooms are very diverse in their shape, structure, ecological and physiological characteristics, which are important for nature and a number of human activities.

The main features that unite them are: heterotrophic (dependent nutrition), the lack of chlorophyll makes them different from plant-producing organisms; poorly differentiated tissues – the talus (their vegetative body) is composed of simply arranged hyphae that have linear growth; presence of cell walls (which distinguishes them from animals and brings them closer to plants); in the cell walls of higher fungi the presence of chitin is observed, which is also involved in the construction of the outer shell of insects.

Infectious onset of fungus In lower fungi, the predominant component in the cell walls is cellulose. They have a nucleus with a two-layer nuclear membrane, unlike prokaryotic organisms.

They reproduce by spores that do not bear germ, as is the case with plant seeds.

Fungi are the cause of most infectious plant diseases. These diseases are known as mycoses. семена на домати

Various experts analyze that over 60% of diseases of cultivated plants are caused by fungi. Fungi are parasites and feed on living plants by attaching and growing on dead organic substrates, absorbing nutrients. Mushrooms have an absorption type of nutrition – absorbing nutrients, they break them down to a digestible form.

The development cycle of fungi usually goes through two phases – vegetative and reproductive. The vegetative phase is associated with the successful attachment of the fungus to the host (plant), its growth and increase in its biomass.

The reproductive phase occurs after the formation of the talus (body) and is manifested by spore formation and reproduction. In mushrooms, the talus usually dies at the end of the growing season and overwintering is most often carried out by the overwintering spores.

An ornamental plant disease caused by a beautiful fungus
Depending on the degree of organization and adaptive capabilities of fungi, they can go through the following types of reproduction: vegetatively; asexual and sexual.

The simplest way to vegetatively propagate fungi is through fragmented, non-specialized parts of hyphae or fungal tissue (plectenchyma). It is possible due to the very high regenerative potential of fungi, is widespread in nature and provides to a large extent the abundance and diversity of certain groups of fungi.

In more complex variants of this type of reproduction, the so-called vegetative spores are formed. These are structures that are formed without changing the nuclear phases (by disintegrating the hyphae into separate parts) and serve mainly for survival in adverse conditions. Asexual reproduction.

It is carried out by spores that form in special organs called sporophores or on specialized branches of the primary mycelium called spores. These spores are formed without sexual intercourse and without the exchange of nuclear phases, but by a simple division of the nucleus, which is called mitosis.

Photos: pellaea, anemoneprojectors and ColinD40 quality limiter for grass пластмасови за трева ограничители 

For most developed countries around the world and Europe, exterior roof landscaping has entered and is developing at a very fast pace, expressed not only as a luxury but also as a necessity, the interest in roof gardens is constantly growing.

Roof gardens in the 21st century are a necessity, vital for the preservation of the microclimate and the normal, natural development of mankind and the animal world. Imposed by the rapid increase in built-up areas and the sharp decrease in landscaping areas.

It is often used in landscaping of residences, office buildings, hotels and restaurants.

In our country, the construction of roof landscaping is vaguely known and lacks the necessary interest and familiarity, and individual sites have been designed for this reason. warming.

Advantages of roof gardens:

The advantages of roof landscaping are Beautifully composed roof garden diverse and significant. Roof gardens contribute significantly to improving the air and light regime of the Earth, and improving its microclimate.

It has a positive effect on environmental pollution, dust pollution, smoke pollution, the harmful effects of noise in large cities and many other harmful effects, contributing greatly to the aesthetic impact during the different seasons of the year. Roof landscaping has a positive effect on the building – lowers temperatures during the warm season by 10 degrees and increases winter by 5 – 10 degrees acting insulating and reducing noise. Garden lamps are used to save electricity.

Thanks to these insulating properties, heating costs are significantly reduced during the cold months and the need for cooling during the summer season is eliminated. These qualities of roof landscaping contribute to and prolong the life and operation of the building and especially the roof. Roof gardens protect against mechanical damage and the strong adverse effects of ultraviolet rays on the roof.

Beautiful roof garden After rains, part of the water is absorbed and retained, evaporates gradually and creates natural humidity in the air and provides a healthier microclimate. The decorative effect of exterior roof landscaping is not the last, diversifies the building and enlivens it, allows for recreation and complete rest near the home or workplace, in addition to the existing vegetation planted on the roof can be made and recreation areas alleys, facilities for rest, water effects, etc.

Disadvantages of roof gardens:

The only drawback and concern is whether it will withstand the roof and whether it will not leak. These probabilities and concerns are prevented by the new and modern means and materials used to build roof gardens. There are enough quality waterproofing and strained drainage systems, which eliminate the danger of leaking roof, and the materials through which the roof landscaping is built are consistent and light enough.

Photos: neepster, 416style and WalkingGeek бетонни павета

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